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Stick electrodes
GTAW-Rods
Cored wires
Solid wires
SAW fluxes
Böhler Welding
Stick electrodes

Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) / Manual metal arc welding (MMA)

 

In SMAW or MMA using coated stick electrodes, the coating forms a protective gas shield and a slag, thereby protecting the transferred metal droplets and the weld metal against contact with atmospheric oxygen. Further functions of the coating are de-oxidation of the weld metal, increasing the metal recovery, compensating for burn-off and ensuring good wetting behaviour. In practical use there are three significant types of coating: rutile, basic and cellulosic and mixtures of these.

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GTAW-Rods

Gas shielded tungsten arc welding (GTAW) / Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding

 

In GTAW or TIG, an arc burning under the protection of an inert gas is used as heat source. Pure tungsten rods or tungsten rods alloyed with cerium or thorium are used as electrode. The shielding gas consists of argon, helium or argon and helium mixtures with a minimum purity of 99.95 %. In this case the shielding gas fulfils several functions. It protects the highly heated tungsten electrode against oxidation by atmospheric oxygen, cools it down and enables the formation of a stable arc. At the same time, the liquid weld pool and the molten tip of the rod are also shielded from the ambient air. During GTAW, the filler metal is introduced into the arc laterally at zero current. Rods approximately 1 m in length are used as filler metals for manual welding and wires coiled onto rolls are used for mechanised GTAW. C-Mn steels as well as low and high-alloyed steels are welded almost exclusively with direct current and the negative pole on the electrode.

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Cored wires

Flux cored arc welding (FCAW)

 

Böhler Welding offers the most comprehensive portfolio of cored wires in the world. Producing both folded and seamless cored wires, Böhler Welding is the best source for all types of cored wires across all alloy groups.

Rutile folded wires provide a powerful penetrating arc with high deposition characteristics, while depositing a smooth weld with minimum spatter formation. Seamless rutile and basic wires offer high impact toughness at low temperature and the lowest possible hydrogen levels in the pure weld metal. Metal-cored wires facilitate maximum productivity, which is unsurpassed when used in robotic applications.

For high-alloyed base materials, precise alloy adjustments ensure high quality welds with excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Our state-of-the-art production technology and internal quality control -exceeding the high standards of the DIN EN ISO 9001 quality system  - ensure outstanding and consistent product quality to our customers and partners – every time.

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Solid wires

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) - Metal inert gas (MIG) and metal active gas (MAG) welding

 

GMAW or MIG/MAG is a semi-automatic process in which a metal arc burns between a current carrying wire electrode and the workpiece, protected by a shielding gas . The wire is fed mechanically into the arc by a wire drive unit with rollers. 

Argon, helium or mixtures of these inert gases are used as shielding gas in the MIG process. Shielding gases of argon with the addition of oxygen, helium with the addition of oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO2) or mixtures of these gases are used in the MAG process. The shielding gas promotes the creation of a stable arc and protects the molten weld pool from coming into contact with the atmospheric air. The addition of oxygen to the shielding gases reduces the surface tension of the weld pool and leads to the formation of a flatter weld surface with good wetting onto the weld edges. The transfer of metal in the arc also becomes finer.

Excessive alloying of the wire electrodes equalizes the burn-off of alloying elements which occurs. It is imperative that the welding area is free from draughts. At high welding speeds and rapid oscillation, care must be taken to ensure complete shielding of the molten weld pool by using appropriate quantities of shielding gas and correct nozzle shapes.

Only direct current inverters or rectifiers are suited as as power sources, with the positive pole mainly on the electrode. Although welding with the negative pole increases the metal deposition efficiency, droplet transfer is higher and the arc less steady. Welding can be in the spray-arc or short arc mode, depending on welding current and arc voltage.

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SAW fluxes

Submerged arc welding (SAW)

 

Submerged arc welding (SAW) uses a metallic filler metal (wire) and a non-metallic consumable, the welding flux. The welding flux has a significant effect on the weld appearance and slag detachability, as a result of the melting characteristics and various physical properties such as viscosity, surface tension, density, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity. The flux also affects the chemical composition of the weld metal and its mechanical properties, due to its metallurgical action.

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